In 138-36 BC the territory of Portugal was conquered by Rome and in the last third of the 1st century. BC. the Roman province of Lusitania was formed there. In the beginning. 5th c. AD The Suebi invaded the Iberian Peninsula and the territory of Portugal became part of the Suebi kingdom. In the 2nd floor. 5th c. control over this region passed to the Visigoths. In 713-18 Portugal was conquered by the Arabs. 9th-10th centuries became a period of economic and cultural upsurge. Later, centers of the Reconquista arose to the north of the Douro River and to the middle. 11th c. this part of Portugal became part of the Leono-Castile (Spanish) kingdom.
According to localcollegeexplorer.com, the name of Portugal comes from the name of the former Roman settlement of Portus Calais at the mouth of the Douro River, later there was the northernmost feudal fief of Komitatus Portocoulenis. The independent history of Portugal begins after 1095, when the Portuguese County was formed on the territories conquered from the Arabs. Henri of Burgundy became its ruler, who came to the aid of the Leono-Castile kingdom during the war with the Arabs. In 1143, an independent Portuguese kingdom was created with its capital in Coimbra, and Afonso I became its first king. In 1147, Portugal conquered Lisbon from the Arabs. The reconquest in Portugal ended in 1250 with the complete expulsion of the Arabs from the country.
From 1255 Lisbon, the capital of Portugal, became a major center of transit trade. In the 13th century a class monarchy was established in the country, the Cortes were formed. In 1385, the Cortes elected the Grand Master of the Order of Avis, Joan (Joan I), as king. The Avis dynasty ruled in Portugal until 1580. In the 15th century. Portugal’s outward expansion began. In 1415, the African fortress of Ceuta was captured, and by 1485, the main points on the western coast of the Atlantic—the island of Madeira, Sao Tome and Principe, and the Azores—were captured. Vasco da Gama’s discovery of the sea route to India (1498) marked the beginning of the Portuguese conquests in East Africa, India, and Southeast Asia. The discovery of Portugal by Cabral in 1500 led to the transformation of Portugal into a large colonial empire. After the death of the Portuguese king Sebastian I, the country was taken over by the Spanish king Philip II, Spanish domination lasted from 1581 to 1640. After the general uprising of 1640, Portugal again became independent. To the beginning 18th century the country falls under the strong economic and political influence of Great Britain. In 1703, the Treaty of Lisbon was signed on an “eternal” union with Great Britain. In 1793 Portugal joined the anti-French coalition. But in 1807, French troops occupied the country, and the royal family was forced to leave for Brazil. In 1810, with the help of the British, the French were expelled, and in 1821 the king returned to the country. Brazil gained independence in 1822.
On October 5, 1910, the monarchy was overthrown in Portugal and a republic was proclaimed. In World War I, Portugal took part on the side of the Entente. In May 1926, as a result of a coup d’état, a military dictatorship was established in the country. In 1932, General O. Salazar seized power in the country and established an authoritarian regime. In the 2nd World War, Portugal remained neutral. In 1949 she joins NATO. Since 1961, Portugal has waged a colonial war against national liberation movements in its possessions in Africa. In 1970, after the death of Salazar, his successor, M. Caetanu, became the new dictator. On April 25, 1974, as a result of the performance of army units led by officers of the “Movement of the Armed Forces” (ICE), a democratic coup was carried out. In 1974–75 Portugal recognized the independence of its former colonies in Africa.