Guinea [gi], officially French République de Guinée [repy Republic də gi ne], German Republic of Guinea country in West Africa with (2019) 12.8 million residents; The capital is Conakry.
Guinea is in the region of the humid tropics with a rainy season; this lasts in the coastal area and in the southeast from April to November, in the northeast from May to October. The annual rainfall on the coast is up to 4,300 mm, in the northeast, however, only around 1,300 mm. The mean temperatures in January are around 25 ° C; the summer temperatures are between 18 ° C (August in the mountains) and 30 ° C (April in the northeast). The relative humidity in February is between 36 (in the northeast) and 70% (south coast), in August between 80 and 90%.
The first settlers in the area of present-day Guinea are the paleonegritic ones of the Tenda, classifiable as semibantu; they belong to the sussu (11%) and baga, who live in the coastal strip, and kissi (6%), the koniaghi, the Bassari and Kpelle (4.6%), which live in the interior regions. Sudanese populations, such as the Fulbe (38.6% of the entire population) and the Malinke (23.2%). Other ethnic groups make up 16.6% of the total population. The European colonization, which had profound repercussions on the economic and social conditions of the country, began in 1634 but only intensified in the second half of the century. XIX, but it was never numerically relevant.
According to threergroup, the population density (35 residents / km²) is slightly higher than the average of the continent; the healthier area of Fouta-Djalon is home to about a third of the residents, as well as the coastal strip, although partly marshy and long prone to malaria. The population of urban areas also accounts for about one third. The village, often enclosed by high palisades or mud walls, is the most widespread form of settlement; along the waterways live the fishermen. The only real city is the capital Conakry. The other cities of some importance are: Kankan, an active agricultural product market on the Milo River, the terminus of the main line of penetration and equipped with an airport; Kindia and Labé on the slopes of Fouta-Djalon, the first on the Conakry-Kankan railway; Siguiri on a hill dominating the Niger, which is already navigable here; Nzérékoré, in the extreme southeastern sector of the territory.
The vegetation of Guinea follows the climatic and morphological changes of its territory, in fact the coastal strip is covered by the rainforest with tall trees, also rich in precious essences such as ebony. Continuing along the coast and on the banks of rivers, the forest takes on amphibious characteristics due to the spread of large mangrove formations. Towards the interior, beyond the transition belt represented by the gallery forest, the savannah happenstree-lined and shrubby, especially in the northern part, along the course of the Niger. Finally, in the Fouta Djalon region, where the plateaus are the highest in the country, the savannah gives way to grasslands. Snakes and crocodiles, many tropical bird species, such as the toucan and parrot, but also mammals such as leopard, lion, hippo, wild boar and antelope are among the most common animals in Guinea. The country is plagued by serious environmental problems: soil erosion, with a consequent increase in the process of deforestation and desertification, and the scarcity of drinking water, with a consequent low quality of sanitation standards, have produced serious damage to the environment and man. There are three national parks in Guinea (in total the protected areas cover 6, 2% of the territory). In the state there is also an area declared a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO, the Natural Reserve of Mount Nimba (1981), inscribed in the list of endangered sites.
Kankan [French KÃ kA], city in the Republic of Guinea, on Milo, who is navigable from Kankan during floods, 380 m above sea level (2014) 190,700 residents.
Traffic, commercial and administrative center of the Upper Guinea region; catholic bishopric; University (since 1987), agricultural school, research institute for rice cultivation; Trading center for peanuts, cotton and rice; Rice mill, wood processing, engine and machine assembly; Airport.
Kankan was founded as a caravan base by Sonin traders in the 18th century; after 1870 it was temporarily the residence of Samory Touré, an African ruler in western Sudan.
Nzérékoré [nzerek ɔ re], N’Zérékoré city in the Republic of Guinea, 492 m above sea level at the foot of the Nimba (2014) 195 000 residents.
Catholic bishopric; Administrative and commercial center of the forest region in the south-east of the country; Wood processing (plywood and veneer mill), cigarette factory; Airport.
Conakry [k ɔ na kri], capital of the Republic of Guinea, West Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, with (2014) 1.66 million residents.
The city, seat of a Catholic bishop, was founded by the French around 1884.