Maine Overview

Abbreviated as ME, Maine is a state [4] in the northeastern United States, part of New England. Population 1,328,188 (41st among US states; 2011 data ). The capital is Augusta, the largest city is Portland.

The native inhabitants of the territory of the state were the Indians who spoke the Algonquian languages. The first European settlement in Maine was founded by the French in 1604 on the island of the Holy Cross (Saint-Croix). The first English settlement was established by the Plymouth Company in 1607.

In the 1620s, a number of English settlements were founded along the coast of Maine, but due to the harsh climate, deprivation and conflict with the aborigines, many of them disappeared in the following years. By the early 18th century, Maine had only half a dozen English settlements.

American and British forces fought for Maine during the Revolutionary War and the Anglo-American War.

Maine was part of Massachusetts until 1820. As a result of the Missouri Compromise on March 15, 1820, Maine became the 23rd US state.

Official nicknames – “The Pine Tree State”, “Vacationland”.

History

The settlement of Maine by Europeans began in 1607 under the control of the Plymouth Company. A land patent of 1622 established the province of Maine. The name is supposedly derived from the French province of Maine.

During the War of Independence and the War of 1812, Maine was controlled by the British. Maine has existed as a separate state since 1820, before that its territory was part of Massachusetts.

Geography

The area is 91 646 km². The administrative center is the city of Augusta ; largest city and port – Portland on Casco Bay. Most of the territory is occupied by the spurs of the Appalachians (up to 1606 m – Mount Katadin ). The climate is moderately humid. Average January temperature is about -9 ° C [5][ unauthorized source? ], July – 15-18 ° C [ source not specified 331 days ]. Annual precipitation is about 1000 mm. There are many lakes and rapids rich in hydropower (the capacity of power plants exceeded 1.5 GW in 1973). An important industry is agriculture. 65 percent of the marketable agricultural output comes from animal husbandry (1971). The number of cattle (1972) was 142,000, including 66,000 dairy cows. Maine ranks first in the US on charges of potatoes (the main area – Valley Aroostook ). Logging, woodworking and especially the pulp and paper industry are of great importance…. The leather and footwear, textile, garment industries, and the production of textile and shoe machines are also developed. Shipbuilding. On the coast – fishing and fish canning industry. There are 103,000 people employed in the manufacturing industry (1971).

Minerals

Non-metallic minerals : sand, gravel, clay, limestone, granite, peat. There are deposits of zinc, lead and precious stones.

Flora and fauna

Forests occupy 84% of Maine’s territory, according to this indicator it has no equal in the United States. The most common softwood trees are: red and white spruce, fir, hemlock, white pine. In the north and northeast, spruce and fir prevail, in the southwest, pine and hemlock. Among deciduous trees, the most common are beech, white and yellow birch, sugar and red maple, poplar, white oak, black willow, black and white ash, and American elm. Most flowers and shrubs growing in the state are typical for the northern temperature zone. There are many wild American blueberries in Hancock and Washington counties.

For the forests of the state, typical animals are: deer, elk, black bear, lynx, beaver, otter, muskrat, mink, marten, weasel, raccoon, skunk, red fox, gray and white rabbit, red and gray squirrel, chipmunk and porcupine. Perch, trout, pike and salmon are found in the lakes and rivers of the state., in coastal waters – seals and porpoises, as well as many fish, typical of the North Atlantic. Local lobsters are known all over the world.

The state is also home to many birds, including gulls, eider, Canada goose, cormorants and puffins.

Population

Population density
Maine has a population of 1,329,328 as of July 1, 2015, according to the United States Census Bureau ; an increase in comparison with the 2010 census indicator was 0.07% [7]. The population density is 16.6 people / km². This is the lowest population density of any state east of the Mississippi. According to the 2010 census, the racial makeup of the state is as follows: White (94.4%), Black (1.1%), Indians (0.6%), Asians (1%), other races (0.1%), mestizo (1.4%)… About 1.3% of the population is Hispanic. White population mainly of English (30.6%), French Canadian (25%), Irish (18.3%), German (8.3%), Italian (5.8%) and Scottish (4.8%) descent…

According to the 2000 census, 92.25% of Maine’s population speaks English at home. In addition, in the state of the highest percentage of French-speaking population among all states in the country, about 5.28% of the population speaks French at home (compared to 4.68% of the population of Louisiana). Maine does not have an official language, but English is the most spoken.

Population dynamics:

1950: 913,774 people
1960: 969,265 people
1970: 992,048 people
1980: 1,124,660 people
1990: 1,227,928 people
2000: 1,274,923 people
2010: 1,328,361 people

Maine state