The economic crisis that has hit many European countries has hit Poland less hard than others, also thanks to the possibility of using monetary policy to counter the recession; in fact, Poland, having not yet joined the eurozone, despite having fixed an exchange parity of its own currency with the euro, was able to inject liquidity into the system. Despite a significant decline compared to the first years of the millennium, the Polish GDP continued to register growth rates, albeit fluctuating (+ 6.8% in 2007, + 5.1% in 2008, +1.9 in 2009, + 3.9% in 2010, + 4.3% in 2011, +1.9 in 2012, + 1.3% in 2013, + 3.2% in 2014), while those of other economies in the area suffered catastrophic declines.
The leading sector is that of the automotive industry, flanked by the traditional mining, textile, metalworking and clothing sectors. However, the modest investment in research and development prevents that leap in quality that would allow the Polish industry to devote itself to products with a higher technological content. In this regard, the strong vertical integration that has been consolidated in recent years between the Polish and German economies is significant, with mutual benefits, but also very rigid constraints: in fact, Germany offers itself as an outlet market for a quarter of exports. of Poland, but in the complementary link between the two economies the latter is relegated to less profitable activities, while those with higher added value are carried out in Germany. It remains undeniable that the good economic performance was also achieved thanks to foreign direct investments. German companies are the most active in the country, but also the Italian ones have shown their belief in the Polish economy alongside the historic presence of FIAT in the country, especially in the mechanical and banking sectors. These investments have been favored by a policy of tax exemptions which is the basis of the good attractiveness of the Polish labor market and has made Poland the second European nation for the number of jobs deriving from foreign investments. In particular, 14 special economic zones with a privileged tax regime have been established around key economic centers (obviously Warsaw, and then Krakow, Poznań and Wroclaw). At the same time, these attractive measures for investments included an obligation for the company to hire local workers with a commitment to keep their jobs for at least five years. This has helped to contain the unemployment rate, which since 2014 has come closer to the European Union (EU) average, after a few years of rise, and in any case far from the worrying levels of southern European countries. For Poland 2013, please check physicscat.com.
The success of the Polish economy is not only linked to the confidence of foreign investors, but also to the growth of the domestic market, favored by the consolidation of a middle class which, in addition to being young and prepared, can also count on good economic resources (income per capita has doubled compared to the time of entry into the EU, although it remains well below the European average). However, the achievements of this ambitious new social segment have produced a negative phenomenon: the trade deficit, driven by the demand for consumer products.
Energy dependence on coal has not yet been resolutely addressed by the government, but new perspectives are opening up with the discovery of shale gas reserves.), of which the country abounds. However, it is an extraction technique that raises concerns about the harmful effects on the environment. In terms of energy policy, we must remember the requests that the European Union is addressing in an increasingly pressing way to Poland to review its strategy in order to reduce the current pollution rates deriving from coal mining. However, Warsaw’s hesitations must be included, not only because of the employment repercussions that the closure of the mines would entail, but also because coal allows the country to be less dependent on energy imports than many of its European partners. In recent years, Polish agriculture has undergone attempts at modernization under the impetus of European agricultural policies. Poland it is in fact the major beneficiary of the structural funds of the European Union. However, overall, the levels of mechanization of Polish agriculture still remain far from the standards of the more advanced countries, especially in the eastern regions, and the share of workers in agriculture remains high. The tourism sector, already booming in the nineties of the twentieth century, continued to grow, with a peak in the summer of 2012, when Poland hosted the European football championships. In that year the tourist presences registered a considerable number of almost 15 million entries, with a clear majority of Germans; moreover, that sporting event also had a beneficial impact on the infrastructure modernization of the country. In that year the tourist presences registered a considerable number of almost 15 million entries, with a clear majority of Germans; moreover, that sporting event also had a beneficial impact on the infrastructure modernization of the country. In that year the tourist presences registered a considerable number of almost 15 million entries, with a clear majority of Germans; moreover, that sporting event also had a beneficial impact on the infrastructure modernization of the country.