According to microedu, Singapore is a parliamentary republic. The status of the country as an independent state is enshrined in the Constitution, which was based on the Act of Independence of 1965, revised articles of the Constitution of 1959 during the stay in the Federation of Malaysia. In March 1980, the text of the current Basic Law was published.
It has a unified territorial-administrative system, 21 municipal districts. The only and largest city is Singapore.
The principles of public administration are based on the strategy of “Singaporeization” of society on the basis of the Chinese, Malay and Tamil ethnic groups in order to create a single nation. In fact, the concept of a meritocratic society has been established, where the principle of nominating the most gifted citizens, selected from all national groups and social strata, prevails. As a “semi-state” religion, Confucianism, or the concept of the so-called. Confucian dynamism, based on traditional ethical norms: purposefulness, thrift, diligence, unconditional recognition of the supremacy of power.
The highest body of legislative power is the unicameral parliament. Elected by direct vote for 5 years by citizens who have reached the age of 21. The composition of the parliament is formed from elected deputies, as well as 6 parliamentarians appointed by the head of state. The meetings are chaired by the Speaker, who is elected from among the Members of Parliament.
The highest body of executive power is the cabinet of ministers. The Cabinet is responsible to Parliament and consists of 13 ministers. Prime Minister Go Chok Tong was appointed in November 1990.
The head of state is the president. Since 1991 elected by direct vote, has limited veto power. President – S.R. Nathan was elected in September 1999 for a term of 6 years.
The electoral system is based on the rules and procedures in force in the UK, but with amendments to local conditions.
Prominent figures of the country: David Marshall, the first Chief Minister of the self-governing state (1955-56); Yusof bin Ishak, the first president of S.; Lee Kuan Yew, patriarch of political life, prime minister of a self-governing state in 1959–63, in 1963–65 Singapore as part of Malaysia, in 1965–90 an independent country.
Singapore has a multi-party system. The ruling party is the People’s Action Party (PAP), founded in November 1954. Others are the Democratic Progressive Party, the Democratic Alliance, the Democratic Party, the National Solidarity Party, the Justice Party, and the Malay National Organization. The opposition is represented by the Workers’ Party. Its leader is J.B. Jayaretnam.
Leading business organizations: Singapore Federation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry, China Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Indian Chamber of Commerce, International Chamber of Commerce, Malaya Chamber of Commerce and others. 1970s the Singapore Consumers Association. Any citizen who has reached the age of 18 has the right to become a member. The party is called upon to inform about the rights of consumers, to deal with complaints.
Since independence, the MHP has been in power. In the 2001 general election, she again won a landslide victory, receiving St. 75% of the votes. The republic maintains strong internal political stability, high efficiency of the system and mechanisms of state administration. There is a comprehensive system of regulation of domestic political life, based on a deeply developed legal framework. As before (since the 1950s), the law on internal security remains in force, allowing the detention of citizens for an indefinite period without judicial authorization. The activities of the opposition are controlled by the authorities.
It pursues a dynamic foreign policy course focused primarily on ensuring economic interests. He takes an active part in the activities of ASEAN, the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), APEC, ASEM (Asia-Europe Dialogue Forum). Considers the presence of the United States in the Pacific region as the main condition for ensuring security. It is a member of the Five-Party Defense Arrangements with Australia, the UK, Malaysia and New Zealand. In 2001-02, Singapore was elected as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council.
Relations with Malaysia, the closest neighbor and economic partner, are characterized by serious fluctuations: alternating periods of rapprochement and sharp controversy over issues of intersecting interests. However, on the whole, the understanding of the objective interdependence of the two countries dominates.
The armed forces, numbering more than 60 thousand people, were created with the help of Israeli advisers and on the model of the Israeli Armed Forces. Ground Forces – 50 thousand people, Air Force – 4.5 thousand people. The Armed Forces are recruited on the basis of the Compulsory Military Service Act. The commander-in-chief is the president of the country. Political leadership and top management is exercised by the Prime Minister through the Ministry of Defense. Since Singapore does not have an operational territorial depth, the military doctrine and the concept of “forward defense” provide for the development of the Armed Forces as a force to deter a potential aggressor at early approaches, their constant combat readiness and saturation with the most modern weapons and military equipment systems. Defense spending – approx. 5% of GDP (2001).
Singapore has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established with the USSR on June 1, 1968). Singapore declared the recognition of the Russian Federation as the legal successor of the USSR on January 2, 1992.