According to Ethnicityology, the country of Switzerland has an excellent network of communication routes, although the complex orography has imposed constraints, required huge appropriations and daring engineering works (in 1882 the Gotthard railway was inaugurated, 15 km long, and in 1906 it was opened to transit the Simplon tunnel). Although the territory is mainly mountainous, the Swiss railway network is, in relation to the surface of the state, very extensive, well equipped with infrastructures and well equipped; in particular, the federal railways are among the most efficient in the world. The network is connected to Central European (from Basel), French (from Lausanne and Geneva) and Italian (through the Gotthard and Simplon tunnels). Its development is characterized by three major systems; one, which includes the lines that connect Lake Geneva with Lake Constance through the Mittelland; a second, made up of those that cut across the country; and a third, whose lines extend in an arc connecting the western borders with the eastern ones. The greatest density of railway communications occurs in the N. A significant development also presents the road network, which required the construction of technically demanding tunnels (San Gottardo). The recourse to inland waterways has not lost importance: in addition to the lively navigation on the major lakes, Switzerland can count for a short distance on that formidable communication artery that is the Rhine: thanks to it, Basel is a great port and has its own commercial fleet.
Air communications at Kloten (Zurich), Geneva, Basel and Bern. The national airline is Swiss, born on March 31, 2002 from the ashes of Swissair and Crossair. The strong focus on ecology and the conservation of natural resources has long led the country to focus on transport policies with a low environmental impact. The transit of goods by rail, as an alternative to that by road, has been widely encouraged and supported in recent decades by national and cantonal governments. The Basel-Ponte Chiasso railway line, which crosses the whole of Switzerland in the NS direction, from the French and German borders to the Italian border, has been equipped with modern infrastructures and enhanced in its connections with some of the most important corridors wanted by the EU. Although trade within the country is also intense, it is however those with foreign countries that are of decisive importance in the national economy. Many industrial sectors work almost exclusively for foreign countries and this, however, thanks to imports of raw materials. Few countries have such intense exchanges with foreign countries (and this also applies to the financial sector; Switzerland with its numerous credit institutions, three stock exchanges and its insurance companies plays a key role on the international market).
Exports mainly concern various machines and equipment, chemical products, optical and precision instruments, watches, textiles, etc.; on the other hand, raw materials and semi-finished products, fuels, vehicles and in general those products that the highly developed Swiss industry are unable to supply, as well as, to a considerable extent, jewelry and other luxury items are imported. The exchanges take place mainly with Germany, France, Italy, Great Britain and the United States. The trade balance is active both in its component of invisible exchanges and capital movements, both in interest and in capital dividends, and finally for currency flows that constantly flow from abroad into safe Swiss banks (it is estimated that about half of the Swiss banking transactions are carried out with foreign capital). In the services sector, the credit, finance and insurance branches play a fundamental role for the entire Swiss economic system. Banks, lenders, have an essential function in the development and strengthening of productive activities, in the very image of efficiency, modernity and stability of the country towards the external. Equally fundamental and efficient are the services of the federal and cantonal public administration. The other services aimed at individuals, consumption, social, health and businesses are generally well distributed throughout the territory even if the “superior” ones tend to be concentrated essentially in urban centers. Tourist services are also important, widespread and well structured. They have significant direct and indirect repercussions on the general economic system. The revenues deriving from the tourist movement are significant. The latter, favored by excellent, modern and efficient structures and infrastructures, has a wide range of typologies: winter, lake, thermal, congress, cultural, environmental. Among the universally famous places they are remembered Sankt Moritz, in the Engadine, Davos and Arosa in the Grisons, Interlaken and Grindelwald in proximity in the Bernese Alps, Zermattand Crans-Montana, in the Valais.