Tajikistan, officially Tajik Çumhurii Točikiston, German Republic of Tajikistan, Tadschikien, state in the southeast of Central Asia with (2018) 9.1 million residents; The capital is Dushanbe.
Tajikistan belongs to the western part of the geographic area of Turkestan ; its development was closely related to Transoxania. Archaeological traces prove developed arable cultures since the 2nd / 1st. Millennium BC The area had a territorial share in ancient Iranian empires (e.g. Bactria, Sogdiana). Tajikistan was part of the Persian empire of the Achaemenids, was then ruled by the Hunnic Hephthalites and the Iranian Sassanids, before it was ruled in the 7th / 8th centuries. Century fell to the Arab-Islamic caliphate. After a last heyday among the Iranian Samanids in the 10th century, Turkic Congolian tribes increasingly immigrated from the 11th to the 16th century, who achieved an Iranian-Turkish synthesis through their political-military dominance. From the 16th century the Uzbek influence (Shaibanids) increased. Kokand (1876) northern Tajikistan became part of the General Government of Turkestan, southern parts remained with the Emirate of Bukhara , which had been under the Russian protectorate since 1868. In 1895, together with the Pamir region, the Bergbadachschan area came to Russia.
By the end of 1918, large parts of Tajikistan came under Bolshevik rule and were incorporated into the Turkestan ASSR, which was founded in the same year; In 1920 the emirate of Bukhara was annexed and – analogous to Khiva (Khorezm) – its conversion into a “People’s Republic”. As part of the artificial redistribution of Central Asia, Tajikistan was founded in 1924 as an “autonomous region” within the Soviet Republic of Uzbekistan and converted into an ASSR on October 14, 1924. 12. In 1929 became a member of the USSR. However, important places with a majority Persian-speaking population such as Bukhara and Samarkand remained with the Uzbek SSR. Writing reforms initially brought about a change from the Arabic to the Latin and, in 1940, to the Cyrillic alphabet. The collectivization of agriculture was associated with an imposed expansion of cotton cultivation and the forced relocation of parts of the population from the mountain regions into the valleys. The fierce resistance (Basmachi movement) against Sovietization continued into the mid-1930s. Industrialization was advanced in the 1940s. Only after Industrialization was advanced in the 1940s. Only after Industrialization was advanced in the 1940s. Only after Stalin’s death was able to form a new national elite and participate in the power structures. Tajikistan, however, remained the least developed Union republic; the largely preserved traditional social structures (clans, loyalty relationships within the country teams, strong influence of Islam) fitted, partly transformed, into the Soviet power system. See itypeauto for Tajikistan literature.
In the course of a reawakening of national consciousness during the Soviet policy of perestroika, Tajikistan declared itself sovereign within the USSR on August 24, 1990 and proclaimed its independence on September 9, 1991. The ban on the Communist Party issued by parliamentary president Kadreddin Aslonov after the coup in Moscow (August 1991) reversed the communist-controlled parliament in September 1991, Aslonov was forced to resign and a state of emergency was temporarily imposed. Azlonov’s successor, the communist Rahman Nabijew (* 1930, † 1993), won the first presidential election in November 1991. After serious unrest, the opposition (Party of the Islamic Rebirth of Tajikistan [NIT], nationalist people’s movement »Rastochez«, Democratic Party [HD]) initially forced their participation in power in May 1992 (formation of a coalition government), in September 1992 she finally overthrew President Nabiiev. In the south of the country, bloody fighting broke out in 1992 between government troops and Islamist-nationalist forces, which were also joined by regional clans and criminal gangs, triggered a stream of refugees, and a civil war broke out.
World Heritage Sites in Tajikistan
World Heritage Sites (K) and World Natural Heritage (N)
- Sarasm Archaeological Site (K; 2010)
- Tajik National Park in Pamir (N; 2013)
Sarasm Archaeological Site (World Heritage)
Sarasm means “where the land begins”. There the development of human settlement in Central Asia can be traced: ruins from the epoch between the 4th and 3rd millennium BC. BC occupy settlements shortly before an urban culture. Finds show that there was trade with far-flung areas such as Turkmenistan and the Indus Valley.
Sarasm Archaeological Site: Facts
|Official title:||Sarasm Archaeological Site|
|Cultural monument:||It was not until 1976 that archaeological finds of an urban structure from the 4th millennium BC were discovered. In the valley of the Serafshans on the border with Uzbekistan; Remains of stately homes, dwellings, farm buildings and granaries from the beginnings of sedentarism in Central Asia; Evidence of mineralogical, Bronze Age mining and the corresponding processing; Starting point for extensive trading activities with Turkmenistan, Mesopotamia, Iran and the Indus region; first UNESCO World Heritage Site in Tajikistan|
|Location:||Sarasm, northwest Tajikistan|
|Meaning:||Exceptional testimony to the development of sedentarism in Central Asia; extensive, well-preserved documentation of a first urban settlement; outstanding testimony to trading activity in the 4th millennium BC Chr.|
Tajik National Park in the Pamir Mountains (World Heritage)
In the 25,000 km² national park in the Pamir Mountains there are several peaks with over 7,000 m. Among the 1,085 glaciers in the national park, the longest valley glacier outside the polar region is 77 km. The seasonal temperature extremes and the high risk of earthquakes make the park a sparsely populated area. However, it is home to a large number of rare animal species, such as the snow leopard or the red wolf.
Tajik National Park in the Pamir Mountains: Facts
|Official title:||Tajik National Park in the Pamir Mountains|
|Natural monument:||National park with a size of 25,000 km² in the east of Tajikistan in the Pamir, a high mountain range of Central Asia (Pik Ismoil Somoni with 7,495 m) with earthquake activity; 1085 recorded glaciers with the longest valley glacier outside the polar regions (77 km long) as well as 170 rivers and 400 lakes; largest protected area in Central Asia in an almost untouched landscape with rough, impressive natural forms and very different forms of vegetation (desert steppes, meadows, bush terrain); Occurrence of a large number of threatened and rare birds and mammals (e.g. snow leopard, red wolf), approx. 100 endemic plant and animal species; highest natural dam in the world (Lake Sarez)|
|Meaning:||Extraordinary, untouched mountain landscape with unique natural phenomena; excellent opportunity for scientific research into plate tectonics|