Uruguayan literature, is part of Latin American literature in Spanish.
Uruguayan literature began, influenced by Spanish neoclassicism, with the patriotic poems by Juan Francisco Martínez (18th / 19th century) and the satires and epigrams by Francisco Acuña de Figueroa (* 1791, † 1862). The starting point of the fertile tradition of Gaucho literature was the “Diálogos” by Bartolomé Hidalgo (* 1788, † 1823). The Argentines, who fled the dictatorship of J. M. de Rosas, spread romanticism, of which the poems by J. Zorrilla de San Martín and the novels by Eduardo Acevedo Díaz (* 1851, † 1921) were shaped. A realistic penetration tending towards naturalism v. a. of rural life distinguished the novels by Javier de Viana (* 1869, † 1926) and Carlos Reyles (* 1868, † 1938).
Modernism found its most important representatives in J. Herrera y Reissig , Roberto de las Carreras (* 1873, † 1963) and H. Quiroga, but also in the poets María Eugenia Vaz Ferreira (* 1875, † 1924) and D. Agustini . The cultural critic J. E. Rodó, whose essay “Ariel” (1900) decisively shaped the Latin American identity debate of his generation, and the philosopher Carlos Vaz Ferreira (* 1873, † 1958) gained continental importance. In the same way, the dramas by F. Sánchez, which deal with the disintegration of the old, rural structure under the pressure of massive European immigration, became popular for Latin American literatureand determining the partly hallucinatory fantastic stories by H. Quiroga.
The reaction to modernism began with the pantheistic hymns by Carlos Sabat Ercasty (* 1887, † 1982) and the sensually vital poems by Juana de Ibarbourou. Already in the socially critical stories and novels by E. Amorim and Juan José Morosoli (* 1899, † 1957) the change to a psychological narrative art took place. F. Hernández founded an independent fantasy in his dreamlike absurd short stories that influenced the later Argentinian fantasy. J. C. Onetti’s novels used narrative experimental means in nightmarish fictions to depict a world of alienation and threat. In the lyric had Líber Falco (* 1906, † 1955) an unrhetorically transparent diction that led to the antipoesy of M. Benedetti and the self-critical reflections of Idea Vilariño (* 1920, † 2009).
The persecution of artists and writers that began after the military coup of 1973 forced many authors into exile, from which they did not always return after the restoration of democracy in 1985. The most famous prose authors include Jorge Onetti (* 1931, † 1998), Sylvia Lago (* 1932), Cristina Peri Rossi (* 1941), Enrique Estrázulas (* 1942), Juan Carlos Mondragón (* 1951) and the essayist E. Galeano, to the poets, among others Washington Benavides (* 1930), Saúl Ibargoyen Islas (* 1930), Hugo Achúgar Ferrari (* 1944).
According to militarynous, Salto, is the capital of the Salto department, Uruguay, port on the left bank of the Uruguay, opposite Concordia (Argentina), below the Salto Grande (end of shipping), with 104,000 residents (last surveyed in 2011) the second largest city in the country.
Catholic bishopric; Theater, museums, zoo; Wool trade; Processing of agricultural products (especially citrus fruits), chemical and pharmaceutical industry, tourism; Airfield.
Paysandú, capital of the Paysandú department, western Uruguay, (last surveyed 2011) 76 400 residents.
Faculty of Agriculture; Museums; River port on the Río Uruguay (end of shipping); Meat processing, tanneries, sugar, textile, cement industries, breweries, flour mills and others. Processing of agricultural products; shipyard; Airport.